Sunday, November 27, 2011


By Adan Makina
May 24, 2009

A myth is a religion in which no one any longer believes
James Feibleman

Rosaries and Amulets are two religious symbols whose historical significance has baffled researchers mainly those engaged in anthropology, sociology, and archeology. Mythological, religious or otherwise, the rosary is seen as a device that plays a great role in human contemplation of the unknowns as well as a revealer of unfathomable heavenly mystiques. An ordinary object of daily use for millions of committed adherents with differing religious, ideological, and cultural backgrounds, the rosary continues to dangle from the necks of Sheikhs, priests, Rabbis, knowledgeable hermits, spiritualists, and monks without losing its rightful role in society regardless of whether it is crafted from simple wood or made from precious gemstone.

The use of rosaries or prayer beads is widespread among the followers of Islam, Christianity, and Judaism. In Buddhism and Hinduism, the Japa Mala or simply Mala, is a rosary of 108 beads usually worn by priests exclusively for chants purposes. In esoteric Japanese and Tibetan Buddhism, rosaries are used for counting the Mantras and also serve as attributes for some deities most notably the Avalokiteshvara who is the Bodhisattva of compassion. In almost all religions, as usual, the right hand is the regulator of the rosary in every session with the finger nearest the thumb being the one that flicks and counts the preferred chant. In Chinese, the rosary is called Nianzhu; in Japanese it is Nenju; in Vietnamese it is known as Tranghat; while it is Rosarium in Latin.

There is a lot of debate regarding the origin of the rosary among users. [(1)] “In Islam, however, the performance of the rosary is an act of piety. The word for "rosary" in the Arabic language is sibha or masbaha, which is derived from Subhana Allah (God be praised). According to Ali Gom'a Mohamed, professor of fiqh (Jurisprudence in Islam) at Al-Azhar University, the number of beads in the Muslim rosary varies: there is a 33- bead rosary which requires three turns around the circle of beads. Each bead represents one of the names of God mentioned in the Qur'an, the total of which is 99. Another is divided into three parts, each made up of 33 beads which are used at the end of each of the five daily prayers. There is also a 100- bead rosary used in accordance with Sunah. In his book, Manners and Customs of Modern Egyptians, Edward Lane mentioned a 1,000-bead rosary used for funerals.” To some Muslim scholars, the use of the fingers is more preferred than the rosary. They claim that the joints at the phalanges and metacarpals have been created to count prayer chants and that the rosary is an unnecessary innovation into Islam.

Abrahamic and philosophic religions, Pagan and animist practices display amulets of various makes, shapes, and colors worn around the neck with the promises of wealth, children, health, and other human allures or to ward off evil, magic, wicked spirits, and misfortunes. [(2)] “An amulet or charm is an apotropaic object or device, usually with writing on it, which provides prophylaxis against harm, whether of natural or supernatural origin. The use of amulets and charms is virtually universal across human cultures and across time, and Jews are no exception. Jewish amulets have been used to ward off a variety of ills: disease, mishap, sorcery, and/or malevolent spirits. They can also serve as love charms. They have been particularly used by Jews to protect women during pregnancy and to shield newborn infants.”

Amulets have been in existence since the days of the Canaanites, Phoenicians, Assyrians, and Ancient Egyptians. In Turkey, Nazar boncuk, is a special type of amulet believed to protect one from evil eye. Amulets can be found all over Turkey; Turkish women use amulets as bracelets, earrings or necklaces. Turkish people hang them in their houses, offices and also inside cars while babies have specially designed amulets attached to their cloths. This leads us to the notion that the nation of Turkey is the leading producer of amulets in the world. Turkish amulets are mainly blue in color and look like an eye. Some Turkish amulets have magnetic fields making them easily stick to some select surfaces like the refrigerator door. There is a common belief among the Turkish people that even well-intentioned compliments have a conscious or unconscious measure of spite and resentment. For a Turkish amulet to guard a house, it should be hang at the entrance to the house.

An explanation of the origin of the amulet in Turkish superstition goes this way: once upon a time…there was a massive rock by the sea that could not be split asunder, cracked or broken into pieces despite the combined efforts of a hundred men and repeated dynamiting. After exhausting all energy and technical expertise, mention was made of a man who lived by the sea and who was known to carry the evil eye (nazar). Finally, a plan was hatched to bring the man to the rock venue so he could display his spectacular rock-splitting skills. Upon arriving at the scene and upon setting his sights on the rock, the man was heard to exclaim, “oh my God, what a gigantic rock!” The instant he finished his intonation, there was a crack and then a thunderous sound followed by violent convulsion that reduced the unbreakable huge rock into two pieces.

Moreover, in almost all superstitious communities, it is common for visiting neighbors and strangers alike to compliment on the health, shape, size, and color of newborn babies. For some reason, as fate would have it, the baby gets sick because the invisible evil eye penetrated the baby’s body and soul. At this point in time, parents and immediate relatives of the infant have no other choice but to contact a shaman or cleric to prepare an amulet to keep at bay all varieties of evil eyes as the baby undergoes various developmental stages of metamorphosis. In some communities, a crack on an amulet resulting from prolonged use denotes the wearer has received overwhelming protection and blessings for the duration the amulet was worn.

Egyptologists carrying out archeological excavations in the many burial sites scattered all over Egypt stumbled upon historical amulets made of papyrus finely encased in pharaonic sarcophagus. “Also, Coptic amulets dating back to the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D. have been unearthed in Egypt. Some of the amulets found in Egyptian pyramids are written in Mandaic (an Eastern Aramaic dialect) and have not been translated to this day. In some rare amulets, ancient Egyptians displayed images of the two-headed god (snake and Ibis); there are amulets depicting the cock-headed-snake-legged god, others display the eagle-headed god, crowned hawks, papyri boats, symbols of deities and the ram-headed god. Uterine amulets helped control contraception and childbirth, others were meant for regeneration and eternity and for hip pains (sciatica).” [(3)] The discovery of Greco-Roman, Babylonian, and other varieties of amulets used by diverse ancient civilizations add flavor to the expanding infant archeological sciences.

In Somalia, amulet use is common among nomadic, urban and tribal communities. A well crafted amulet, depending on size and shape, typically is encased in leather while others are sheathed in fine threads. However, there is a type of amulet known locally as “Qardhaas” which is usually carved out of wood and worn around the neck.

Also, Qardhaas may be strapped round the neck of domesticated animals for protection against theft, disease, and the evil eye. The most remarkable trademark amulet known among Somalis is “Xirsi”- which is used for overcoming the whispers of the dreaded Jinni notorious for its mischievous use of supernatural powers. Whether one is seeking to expand a stagnated business enterprise, win the heart of a stubborn mademoiselle, embark on a treacherous journey, overcome the trauma of sterility or recover from a debilitating malady, owning an amulet that will dangle from one’s wrist, neck, leg, thigh, around the waist or other parts of the body, will, if determined by the amulet’s original designer or prescriber bring about abrupt changes and healing to the afflicted body and mind in the nick of time. In women, amulets may be worn to overcome gynecological ailments, vitamin deficiencies, urinary tract infections, migraines, infertility, schizophrenia, mental disorders and even to overcome jealousy.

Perhaps, humans used amulets to triumph over hardships at a time when modern medications other than herbal medicine were nonexistent. Natural hazards like Tsunamis, epidemics, flooding, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, hurricanes, and other unavoidable predicaments that decimated populations may have contributed to the discovery of amulets by shamans whose livelihood depended on the knowledge and skills of prescribing medication and healing the sick. Despite their dependence on trial and error techniques and despite premeditated medical malpractices, healers and shamans continued to be a source of inspiration for millions in need of medical attention.

Religious and historical accounts of human sacrifices as a last resort evolved as a result of appeasing virulent gods and deities whose anger could only be contained by spilling blood and goring human flesh in pagan and animist ritual practices-secret procedures found in some communities. The wave of secret murders of Albinos for ritualistic purposes and the rape of infants by HIV/AIDS sufferers in some countries epitomizes the continuation of ancient practices and the total disregard for the sanctity of human life.

People living in modern western democracies do attach importance to the use of amulets. Rock band musicians, reggae ragamuffins, gangsters, heads of government institutions, and people from all walks of society wear amulets in daily life either as ornaments or for protection against the unknowns. In the African continent, reports of leaders seeking consultations with magicians, shamans, and soothsayers, palmists and astrologers during election times is no secret. Thus, mythological experts have the power to instill fear in the hearts of their clients’ opponents or even cause them to suffer diseases unbeknownst to modern doctors. In some Asian cultures, shamans have mastered the art of shedding light on natural phenomena say like how a perceived volcanic eruption will affect surrounding inhabitants.

Amulets are widely worn as aphrodisiacs in some communities even with the advancement of medical technology. In some diverse cultures, dangling a piece of rhino horn around the neck is a prescription for erectile dysfunction, premature ejaculation, and other aspects related to sexual genitalia malfunctioning. A man in need of instantaneous desirability from an unfriendly woman may resort to wearing a specially designed amulet meant to win her heart even when real love is not on her side. Likewise, women may influence men by wearing amulets of like kind and purpose. Wearing articulately designed amulets with religious inscriptions is a common occurrence across cultures.

However, amulets come in many shapes and designs depending on culture, religion, and intention. Primarily, women who are sterile may wear them around the waist right across where the uterus is located; it may dangle from the neck; it is worn on the wrist and it may also be worn around the thighs. It could be as tiny as a finger ring or it could even be a seed to be retained in the pocket. It is up to one’s preference and choosing how an amulet should be worn and how it should look like.

The emergence of religious fundamentalism has instilled terror among amulet wearers. Fear of retribution or the dread of being associated with certain cults has forced many to formulate assortment of amulets that dissuade the attention of religious fanatics. For example, the use of regular necklaces, finger rings, and even ear rings as amulets has made ancient amulet blueprints obsolete and replicated for modernity.

Thus, inscriptional amulets have been substituted with intentional amulets. This brings us to the idea that amulets need not be handwritten on a piece of paper by a cleric with verses from a divine scripture and then folded into shape anymore. Instead, reciting select verses on to a piece of jewelry is enough to hold the message as intention is superior to scribbling. In Africa, amulet use is widespread among cultures though its use among communities depends on the nature of religious practices and form of worship. Surprisingly, Tuareg amulets sell for up to $150 a piece on eBay. However civilized and transformed the world has become, amulet and rosary use will remain with humankind for a long time to come.




Symbols of Protection Against Evil

Symbols of Protection Against Evil
Omens, Curses and Hexes that signify Dark Forces, Evil Spirits, Bad Luck and Negative Energy, are based upon Ancient Superstitions and Folklore.

Why Does Religion Make People Happier?

This Emotional Life: Why Does Religion Make People Happier?
By Therese J. Borchard
Associate Editor

Harvard psychologist and bestselling author Daniel Gilbert has teamed up with Vulcan Productions and the NOVA/WGBH Science Unit to create a multimedia project called This Emotional Life .

This 3-part documentary ends tonight on PBS. Featured in the third episode is Dr. Edward Diener, who has studied happiness across cultures and has pinpointed some universal reasons that people are happier. One is religion. I had the opportunity to interview Dr. Diener.

Question: Why does religion seem to make people happier?

Dr. Diener: Many studies find that religious people on average are happier. But since not all religious people are happier, and not all religious beliefs seem to lead to happiness, we have to search for the “active ingredient” in what aspect of religion might increase feelings of well-being. In our book on happiness, my son and I argue that one key ingredient is positive spirituality, feeling emotions such as love, awe, wonder, respect, and gratitude that connect us to others and to things larger than ourselves. That is, spirituality can focus us on larger causes than our own personal welfare, and this can give us purpose and meaning. Also, this broader focus on others and purpose can help us quit worrying so much about ourselves. And it can help us connect to others.

Religion has been associated with happiness for other reasons. For instance, religion often gives people social support and contact. People meet other like-minded people at church, and in many instances can count on those folks when they need help. Another reason that some religions might increase subjective well-being is that they provide optimism for an afterlife. These religions solve the “terror” associated with death by promising a better life after death. Another reason that religion can help happiness is that it provides a moral compass, rules to live by. We need something more than our own hedonism to guide our behavior, and religion can help to provide guidelines to follow in order to have an orderly and moral life, that helps us get along well with others. Finally, religion can provide answers to large questions, such as where did the universe come from, why is there evil, etc.

In our research, we are surprised to find that the happiest nations are often relatively nonreligious, such as Scandinavian societies. This is surprising, because we also find that religious people have more positive feelings in most nations. So it is a puzzle as to why people in wealthier societies are so frequently turning away from religion. It seems from our analyses that people most turn to religion when conditions in their society are tough – poverty, conflict, and so forth. When conditions are good, fewer people in a nation continue to be religious. Even then, the religious individuals report more positive emotions.

Question: What are some other key principles to happiness?

Dr. Diener: There are many, many causes of happiness and happiness, and so we do not subscribe to any single “key” to it. Rather, in our book my son and I write that happiness requires a recipe of ingredients mixed in the right amounts. When a person is depressed, it can be for a number of reasons, and the same is true of happiness. For some, happiness comes primarily from their relationships, and for others they obtain a lot of well-being from the contributions of their work. In other words, there are individual differences in the causes of a person’s happiness and unhappiness, and we must look at the facts in each individual case. At the same time, we can say some things about statistical averages, and the common causes of happiness:

Having supportive relationships is very important. We found that all happy people have them.
Being a supportive person to others is also important. People who help others seem to be better off. Some data show that people who help others a lot are healthier.
Having purpose and meaning in life is important, a devotion to people or goals that are larger than ourselves.

Finding activities in which one can use one’s talents and strengths, including one’s work

We outline more of these in our book: However, please note: We are talking here about what makes people happy, not necessarily the causes of unhappiness. Some things might contribute to both, but there can be separate causes of unhappiness and depression. So it really requires something more than getting rid of unhappiness to be happy.

However, Martin Seligman, the founder of positive psychology, has argued that perhaps depression can be best alleviated not by getting rid of problems, but instead by focusing on positive goals, optimism, and positive thinking.

Saturday, November 19, 2011

Gem bracelets good for health

Turquoise symbolizes our source (spirit/sky) and spiritual love for healing and helping. It is known as the stone which connects heaven and earth. Balancing Yin and Yang, energizing the meridians and cleansing/clearing the Aura. Turquoise is used at the Third Eye Chakra for increasing our psychic connection to great spirit through intuition and allows for much deeper meditation. This bracelet is made from turquoise and fashioned into multiple diamond-shapes symbolizing perfect symmetry. The diamond-shape vibrates toward harmony. This makes it an excellent shape for meditation healing or finding a peaceful purpose. As this shape also vibrates toward the solidity of Earth, it's a good bet for magical intentions involving prosperity and abundance, and issues of the family, home, and hearth.

Obsidian is a strong grounding stone and is known as "the protector". It is said to "mirror one's soul. This stone brings about objectivity, dis-attachment and is grounding. It reduces fantasy and escapism. Absorbs and dissolves anger, criticism, fear, and therefore is protective. This unusual black stone absorbs darkness and converts it to white light energy. It is a warm and friendly stone, which is used at the Root Chakra, encouraging ones survival instincts and is grounding. Black obsidian brings higher Chakra light into lower ones; cleanses and uplifts. Changes fear into flexibility with the advent of change. The diamond-shape vibrates toward harmony. This makes it an excellent shape for meditation healing or finding a peaceful purpose. As this shape also vibrates toward the solidity of Earth, it's a good bet for magical intentions involving prosperity and abundance, and issues of the family, home, and hearth. Obsidian is used for transformation.

The Preseli bluestone is the stone that was used at the Stonehenge standing stones. This stone only occurs in one place in the entire world, Carn Meini in the Preseli Mountains. This site is now protected and stones can no longer be taken, but the stones that are being sold were mined many years ago, before this law took effect. That makes them a unique item because eventually they will run out. The properties of Preseli stone include help with dream Work, past life recall, will power, spiritual gift enhancer, powerful as a meditation stone and has been used for protection, energy enhancer, dowsing and for receiving messages. Keep a piece close to you in your working environment or under your pillow.

Lapis Lazuli symbolizes intellect and is a powerful thought-amplifier. It is helpful in aligning all the elements of the body and mind. Can increase psychic abilities and will open the third eye. Can guide you in the direction of mental and spiritual purity. It should be worn as close to the body as possible as the energy of the wearer is drawn upward. Lapis organizes and quiets mind. Opens Throat/Thyroid Chakra and helps on fronts of self-expression, writing, creativity, dream insight, allows total awareness. This bracelet is made from Lapis and fashioned into multiple square-shapes symbolizing the physical world. Like the quartered circle, it directs its user to the power of the four compass directions: north, east, south and west.

Garnet symbolizes faith, love, devotion and trust. Garnet is most famous for balancing our emotional states. Therefore, garnet is one of the best stones for soothing emotional stress and balance. Garnet is a stone of passion. It is given as a gift of love's attraction, a gift of estranged love or a gift of quick return. Red represent love and helps the aspirant to strive for improvement in moral conduct. Garnet has been used for protection against the perils of travel. It encourages a strength and therefore, personal power, which increases success, a victorious attitude and sparks the energies of creativity. Garnet will show you the way out. It is the perfect stone for clearing the Emotional Layer of the Aura.

Ammonite is a stone of protection. It provides for insight and it helps to assist one in seeing the "whole picture." Gives stability to it's user. Since it is associated with the Root Chakra, it encourages ones survival instincts and is grounding. Believed to ease birthing pains and bring relaxation. It helps to remind us to keep breathing, due to its circular design. Ammonite is believed by Feng Shui masters to be associated to the scales of the mythical creature "Chi Lin" Therefore, it is said to be a powerful wealth stone and brings prosperity, grandeur and illustrious sons, similar to the potency of the Chi Lin.

Lepodolite is the stone of rebirth. Useful for transitions in life. Helpful in times of stress and coping with stress therefore, creating calm and relaxation. Lepidolite is used to help ease the transition from addiction. Gently eases intensity of our emotional feelings, mood swings, depression, manic-depression, worry, and anxiety. Brings hope, relief, gentleness, self-love, patience, self-forgiveness, unworried sleep, mental/emotional balance, and well-being. This stone is particularly good for students as it is helpful for studying, learning, manifesting, change and awareness. This stone is used for self-criticism, when we become down on ourselves, lepidolite allows us to see for ourselves who we really are and the potential that lies within us. Lepidolite balances Brow Chakra with new spiritual love. It speeds up decision making, stimulating the intellect and encouraging independence and free and clear thinking. Scanning this stone around the Aura will allow you to locate discomfort and dis-ease anywhere in the energy field.

Pearl is in tune with emotions, water, and women, especially pregnant women. Pearls are a symbol of pure heart and mind; innocence and faith. Because it is from the sea, it has watery and lunar elements, therefore it is used for balancing emotions, especially for water signs. Absorbing by nature, this mineral draws in thoughts and emotions and therefore, very nuturing. White mother of pearl represent purity, spiritual balance and can be used to engage the Crown Chakra. Remember, Pearl is the result of layer upon layer of substance produced to combat irritation, therefore, pearl can cool and soothe, protecting its wearer from all that is irritates our auric energy field.

The martyr stone, aptly named, due to the legend of this stone being at the foot of the cross and stained by the drops of blood from Jesus. Metaphysically, bloodstone is used to either promote a calm, tranquil atmosphere that is grounding or revitalize insufficient energy. A great stone for mental exhaustion. This stone represents both courage and strength and is used for achieving these attributes. It is associated with honesty and integrity and is useful in removing obstacles in life. A classic stone for wealth, it attracts abundance and good luck. Most effective on the Heart (green) and Root (red) Chakra. Bloodstone, also called "Heliotrope" (named for it's sun "red" glow - helios - setting over a green sea). Both colors are depicted in the cross. This is a modern version of the Coptic cross which can be traced to the Coptic ankh symbol and was adopted by early Christians, most notably Valentinus of Alexandria, Egypt.

Freshwater Pearls honor the Goddess in all women. In tune with emotions, water, and women, especially pregnant women, pearls are a symbol of pure heart and mind; innocence and faith. Pearl is the result of layer upon layer of substance produced to combat irritation. Pearl can cool and soothe. It is very nurturing. If using pearls in conjunction with other gemstones, consider amethyst to amplify and purify, or rose quartz, to bring love and open heartedness and aqua aura to bring negative energy out and disperse it.

Multi-colored fluorite is an important body balancer and healer. Opens heart (especially green). It initiates the Crown Chakra for clarity, overview, and seeing additional truths/realities. It is a wonderful crystal for detoxing, anxiety, insomnia. Benefits people with arthritis and rheumatism. Fluorite helps to rekindle sexual appetite and heighten intuitive powers. Assists in gaining spiritual awakening. Helps one become more aware of the higher levels of reality and can anchor and free one from overstimulation on the psychic plane.

Clear and Purple fluorite help with objectivity; clears the way for new things, uplifting, aura cleanse, 3rd eye, eyesight, sinuses; repels colds. Enhances other gems. Green fluorite stills mind and heart, harmonizes and recharges all Chakra. Green Fluorite is a valuable helper in grounding excess energies. Blue fluorite benefits the throat, nose, ears and is soothing and assists in Karmic impasses, unresolved issues, and atonement.

Rose Quartz can be used to facilitate emotional healing, ease loss, calm stress, relieve hurt, dissolve fear, help strengthen low confidence, resolves resentment and quells anger. Slowly eases childhood traumas/neglect/lack of love and low self-esteem. Rose quartz aligns mental, emotional, and astral bodies. It is deeply in tune with emotional states. Advantageous for the heart and circulatory systems.

Friday, November 11, 2011

Secrets of gemstones

Secrets of gemstones
Geologist - profession today is a rare, nice stainless Soviet spirit of Romanticism. It is understandable, one has only to look at the beauty of precious minerals, each of which has not only chemical composition but also its history, shrouded in legends and stories, an element of magic rites and the astrological interpretation is. Today we tell about the most interesting gems.

Aventurine - rock composed mainly of quartz, a type of quartzite. Quite valuable and popular arts and inexpensive semi-precious stone, beautiful shimmering due to the numerous inclusions of small flakes of mica or hematite (iron slyudki). Painted aventurines usually in yellow, green, blue, cherry red and black.

Aquamarine (Latin for «aqua marina» - sea water) - mineral beryl group. The name was first introduced Beotius de Boot (Beotius de Boot) in 1609, linking the color of the mineral with the color of sea water, the similarity is obvious: the stone sparkles like the sea water and its color varies from pale blue to dark blue, sometimes with a greenish tint.

Alexandrite - natural stone, the most valuable of chromium-bearing variety of the mineral chrysoberyl, transparent stone, which has grass-green in daylight and raspberry red in artificial.

The first stone was found at the emerald mine in the river currents in the vicinity of Yekaterinburg in 1833 and was presented with the royal family to adulthood Alexander (the future Tsar Alexander II). Because rare gems with the name of the king of luxury reflect the national colors (green and red), the alexandrite immediately gained recognition of the elite. Necklaces, earrings alexandrite and other jewelry worn by ladies only, but the wife of foreign diplomats. Due to the exceptional rarity and high cost of living, afford to buy or alexandrite jewelry alexandrite with only could only know.

Diamond (in Arabic "invincible") - a mineral, a cubic allotropic form of carbon. Faceted clear diamonds of gem quality diamonds is called (from the French «brillant» - brilliant). The term appeared in the XVII century after the invention of diamond cut. Diamonds are usually colorless or pale colored in shades of yellow, brown, blue, green, pink.

In Russia, the first diamond discovered July 4, 1829 in the Urals in the Perm region in the Holy Cross gold mine fourteen serf Pavel Popov, who found the crystal, washing gold. The first diamond was discovered in Siberia near the town of Yeniseisk in November 1897 at the Mill River. Search for diamonds in Russia was carried out almost half a century, and only in the mid-50s were discovered rich deposits of diamonds in the root of Yakutia.

Amethyst - dark blue, bluish-pink or reddish-purple variety of quartz. It occurs usually in the form of loosely seated in cavities and veins of crystalline rock crystals and their intergrowths.

Amethyst was known in ancient Egypt. In ancient Rome, amethyst was called "blessed the stone," believed that he brings good luck, peace and good, calms the nerves and settles feuds. In the Middle Ages it was called "apostolic stone." According to most European astrological calendar, the stone can be useful for people born in the second half of February - early March.

Beryl - a mineral of subclass island silicates. Some of the varieties of beryl in particular, emerald and aquamarine colored juicy, are gems. The beryl crystals are found as single or combined as a friend. Stained diverse varieties of beryl and is due to impurities. Good specimens of beryl are highly regarded and decorated with collections and museum collections.

Turquoise (Persian, "a stone of happiness" or "are winning") - one of the most popular from ancient mineral. Color from a bright sky-blue or blue-blue to bluish-green and pale green. Turquoise has always been a popular stone and was highly regarded, it has been and remains one of the first semi-precious stones.

In adherents of Islam turquoise - is an indispensable element wedding dress the bride as a symbol of virginity, chastity and a future happy life together. Ring with turquoise, traditionally exchanged on the day of betrothal. They were presented as a sign of attraction, they were symbols of eternal love.

Hematite - a widespread mineral of iron, one of the biggest iron ore. In nature, hematite is widely distributed, often forming large clusters, and ore deposits. Hematite color black to dark steel in the crystals and a cherry-red in skrytokistallicheskih poroshkovatyh and differences. Magicians and conjurers say that hematite has healing properties and protects against evil forces.

Hyacinth - a mineral, gem, clear reddish-brown manganese jewelry jargon with a strong adamantine luster. Stained hyacinth resembles the eponymous flower, hence the name of the stone. There are allegations that the hyacinth contributes to emotional balance and cures insomnia. Extract it in Thailand, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, India, South Africa, Russia (Yakutia, the Urals), Brazil, USA, France, Madagascar.

Rock crystal - mineral, pure natural silica, a colorless, transparent variety of quartz, one of the crystalline modifications of silica. Pure rock crystal defect-free crystals are relatively rare and highly sought after. The ancient Greeks and Romans carved from rock crystal print, vessels and jewelry. Roman patricians in the summer cooled hand balls of rock crystal. Crystals were cut from incendiary lens through which priests "divine fire" ignited a fire on the altar.

Pomegranates - a group of minerals, dark-red crystals which resemble grains of fruit "Phoenician apple" - a grenade. Transparent and translucent, beautifully painted grenades used in jewelry. For precious stones usually include almandine, pyrope, rhodolite, hesonit, grossular, topazolit, demantoid. Well-formed crystals are a wonderful collection material.

Grenades, oriental and European legends, represent the tenacity and strength, persistence and dedication, health and fidelity. The Persians considered him a stumbling king, and believed that one who wears garnet acquires power over people.

Emerald - gem of the 1st class and the most expensive variety of beryl, amazing color gem. Perfect emerald - a transparent stone evenly distributed saturated colors. The main criterion of quality emeralds - the color, the second place - transparency. Natural emeralds almost always have cracks and splits. Large defect-free dense emerald tones in weight from 5 carats of diamonds valued more.

On an emerald and its origin is composed of many legends. According to one, the largest emerald fell to the ground with the head of Lucifer in his exile from heaven. Emerald - the symbol of passionate and faithful love. If the lovers exchange rings with emeralds, their love will not weaken with age, but only grow stronger. Myths attribute this charming stone goddess of love Venus. About Emerald say that it brings happiness only clean person, even if illiterate, so it can crack, unable to overcome the evil inclination to master. He gives courage to the soldiers, and the winners - mercy.

Jade - a mineral green. Jadeite is formed in metamorphic rocks under high pressure and relatively low temperature. In a fresh fracture luster dull, on the polished surface - bold, sometimes with a pearly sheen. Used as ornamental stone.

Pearls - the only jewelry materials formed in the body of mollusks, and he's probably one of the oldest stones used as jewelry, because it does not need additional treatment.

The pearl is formed inside a clam shell as a result of getting back the foreign body (sand, etc.). Further, it is deposited around the pearl, a thin film of concentric layers. Nacre is an organic unit of calcium carbonate. Thus, pearls and a member of the mineral, and of organic matter.

Usually pearls are white, sometimes pink or creamy; also found yellow, green, black and even blue pearls. Blue pearls are very rare, are of high value and attractive because of the rare, blue, lead-gray color.

Quartz - the most common mineral in nature, the earth's crust, silicon dioxide, is found in deposits in the form of a solid mass (quartz veins), in the form of fine-grained dense quartzite, as well as a well-formed columnar, prismatic crystals of large sizes. The color of quartz is very diverse.

Coral is the skeletal material of corals colonies ("bioherm"). Large accumulations of corals form coral reefs and coral islands. In nature, there are more than 2500 species of corals, which are distinguished in a palette of 350 colors. Corals are used as raw material for lime, some - for the manufacture of jewelry. In the latter case, a particularly prized black (akkabar), white pearl and silver "angel skin" and the most popular red and pink corals noble.

Corundum - a mineral that has some variety: ruby, sapphire and others. Strong metallic gloss to matte.

Lapis (lapis lazuli) - opaque minerals from blue to bluish-gray or greenish-gray color, consider the best stones lush blue or blue-purple, and rich blue. Name of the stone, "lapis lazuli" appeared only in the early Middle Ages, denoting it as "blue stone". The word "blue" comes from the Arabic "Azul", used to refer to the sky, or wider, something blue at all. The modern name "lapis lazuli" appeared in the XVIII century. "Lapis lazuli" called only dense and uniformly colored dark-blue variety of lapis lazuli. In ancient times, lapis lazuli was considered a stone of sincerity, a symbol of abilities, talents, success and divine arrangement. In Europe, lapis symbolizes prosperity, luck and success in India, devoted love and prosperity.

Malachite - one of the most beautiful and precious gemstones. The chemical composition of malachite is copper carbonate. Copper compounds cause the green color of the mineral. Under natural conditions, malachite is formed in the oxidation zone of copper, in places where copper ore deposits are combined with sedimentary carbonate rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and others. Despite the fairly widespread, is rarely seen malachite in a form suitable for use in jewelry.

Dense difference with good color and beautiful patterns are valued fairly expensive and are used for making vases, inlaid (facing tables, boxes) and other items. Columns in St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg faced with thin slices of malachite. Most malachite vase is decorated with antique work center hall of the Mineralogical Museum. Fersman.

Jade - a mineral, a variety of actinolite, mainly composed of matted fibers of amphiboles. A remarkable feature of this breed: Extremely high viscosity - fragments of jade is very difficult to split into pieces. The strength of jade is commensurate with good grades of steel. Jade was used in the Bronze Age as a rock to make a very strong weapons and tools, and later - as objects and jewelry.

Color Breed varied - from almost white through all shades of green (yellowish, grass, emerald green, swamp) to almost black. Still occurs and red jade, but he is very valuable and very rare. Jade is often used as an ornamental stone.

Obsidian - volcanic glass uniform, passing through the rapid cooling of molten rock. Does not enter the water, well polished, has a characteristic conchoidal fracture, belongs to the most recent rocks. It is found in the Aeolian Islands, Iceland, Transcarpathia, Siberia, Central Asia, the Baikal region, Primorye, the Caucasus, Kamchatka, Kuril Islands. Obsidian played a big role in the history of mankind: it produced tools, weapons and jewelry.

Onyx - a term of ancient origin and broad meaning, used to refer to the parallel-banded varieties of different minerals ornamental quality, mainly of calcite (marble), chalcedony (carnelian) and cryptocrystalline quartz. Color - brown with white and black patterns, red-brown, brownish-yellow, honey, white, yellow, pink seams. For onyx especially characteristic of plane-parallel layers of different colors.

Agate and onyx sardonyx ("sardonyx", "SARD") has been used by people since prehistoric times for the manufacture of small carved art products (glyptics), as well as carved cylinder seals. Calcite (marble, etc.) types of onyx were used, and are now widely used in larger products: it's all sorts of small and medium plastic, onyx vases, jewelry boxes, candle holders, table tops, etc. It is also used in mosaics and wall. A relatively inexpensive semi-precious stone. The onyx is often cut out a variety of jewelry, the most rare and high-quality varieties of sardonyx - cameos, in which the higher part of the dark image contrasts with the bright background.