Secrets of gemstones
Geologist - profession today is a rare, nice stainless Soviet spirit of Romanticism. It is understandable, one has only to look at the beauty of precious minerals, each of which has not only chemical composition but also its history, shrouded in legends and stories, an element of magic rites and the astrological interpretation is. Today we tell about the most interesting gems.
Aventurine - rock composed mainly of quartz, a type of quartzite. Quite valuable and popular arts and inexpensive semi-precious stone, beautiful shimmering due to the numerous inclusions of small flakes of mica or hematite (iron slyudki). Painted aventurines usually in yellow, green, blue, cherry red and black.
Aquamarine (Latin for «aqua marina» - sea water) - mineral beryl group. The name was first introduced Beotius de Boot (Beotius de Boot) in 1609, linking the color of the mineral with the color of sea water, the similarity is obvious: the stone sparkles like the sea water and its color varies from pale blue to dark blue, sometimes with a greenish tint.
Alexandrite - natural stone, the most valuable of chromium-bearing variety of the mineral chrysoberyl, transparent stone, which has grass-green in daylight and raspberry red in artificial.
The first stone was found at the emerald mine in the river currents in the vicinity of Yekaterinburg in 1833 and was presented with the royal family to adulthood Alexander (the future Tsar Alexander II). Because rare gems with the name of the king of luxury reflect the national colors (green and red), the alexandrite immediately gained recognition of the elite. Necklaces, earrings alexandrite and other jewelry worn by ladies only, but the wife of foreign diplomats. Due to the exceptional rarity and high cost of living, afford to buy or alexandrite jewelry alexandrite with only could only know.
Diamond (in Arabic "invincible") - a mineral, a cubic allotropic form of carbon. Faceted clear diamonds of gem quality diamonds is called (from the French «brillant» - brilliant). The term appeared in the XVII century after the invention of diamond cut. Diamonds are usually colorless or pale colored in shades of yellow, brown, blue, green, pink.
In Russia, the first diamond discovered July 4, 1829 in the Urals in the Perm region in the Holy Cross gold mine fourteen serf Pavel Popov, who found the crystal, washing gold. The first diamond was discovered in Siberia near the town of Yeniseisk in November 1897 at the Mill River. Search for diamonds in Russia was carried out almost half a century, and only in the mid-50s were discovered rich deposits of diamonds in the root of Yakutia.
Amethyst - dark blue, bluish-pink or reddish-purple variety of quartz. It occurs usually in the form of loosely seated in cavities and veins of crystalline rock crystals and their intergrowths.
Amethyst was known in ancient Egypt. In ancient Rome, amethyst was called "blessed the stone," believed that he brings good luck, peace and good, calms the nerves and settles feuds. In the Middle Ages it was called "apostolic stone." According to most European astrological calendar, the stone can be useful for people born in the second half of February - early March.
Beryl - a mineral of subclass island silicates. Some of the varieties of beryl in particular, emerald and aquamarine colored juicy, are gems. The beryl crystals are found as single or combined as a friend. Stained diverse varieties of beryl and is due to impurities. Good specimens of beryl are highly regarded and decorated with collections and museum collections.
Turquoise (Persian, "a stone of happiness" or "are winning") - one of the most popular from ancient mineral. Color from a bright sky-blue or blue-blue to bluish-green and pale green. Turquoise has always been a popular stone and was highly regarded, it has been and remains one of the first semi-precious stones.
In adherents of Islam turquoise - is an indispensable element wedding dress the bride as a symbol of virginity, chastity and a future happy life together. Ring with turquoise, traditionally exchanged on the day of betrothal. They were presented as a sign of attraction, they were symbols of eternal love.
Hematite - a widespread mineral of iron, one of the biggest iron ore. In nature, hematite is widely distributed, often forming large clusters, and ore deposits. Hematite color black to dark steel in the crystals and a cherry-red in skrytokistallicheskih poroshkovatyh and differences. Magicians and conjurers say that hematite has healing properties and protects against evil forces.
Hyacinth - a mineral, gem, clear reddish-brown manganese jewelry jargon with a strong adamantine luster. Stained hyacinth resembles the eponymous flower, hence the name of the stone. There are allegations that the hyacinth contributes to emotional balance and cures insomnia. Extract it in Thailand, Vietnam, Sri Lanka, Cambodia, India, South Africa, Russia (Yakutia, the Urals), Brazil, USA, France, Madagascar.
Rock crystal - mineral, pure natural silica, a colorless, transparent variety of quartz, one of the crystalline modifications of silica. Pure rock crystal defect-free crystals are relatively rare and highly sought after. The ancient Greeks and Romans carved from rock crystal print, vessels and jewelry. Roman patricians in the summer cooled hand balls of rock crystal. Crystals were cut from incendiary lens through which priests "divine fire" ignited a fire on the altar.
Pomegranates - a group of minerals, dark-red crystals which resemble grains of fruit "Phoenician apple" - a grenade. Transparent and translucent, beautifully painted grenades used in jewelry. For precious stones usually include almandine, pyrope, rhodolite, hesonit, grossular, topazolit, demantoid. Well-formed crystals are a wonderful collection material.
Grenades, oriental and European legends, represent the tenacity and strength, persistence and dedication, health and fidelity. The Persians considered him a stumbling king, and believed that one who wears garnet acquires power over people.
Emerald - gem of the 1st class and the most expensive variety of beryl, amazing color gem. Perfect emerald - a transparent stone evenly distributed saturated colors. The main criterion of quality emeralds - the color, the second place - transparency. Natural emeralds almost always have cracks and splits. Large defect-free dense emerald tones in weight from 5 carats of diamonds valued more.
On an emerald and its origin is composed of many legends. According to one, the largest emerald fell to the ground with the head of Lucifer in his exile from heaven. Emerald - the symbol of passionate and faithful love. If the lovers exchange rings with emeralds, their love will not weaken with age, but only grow stronger. Myths attribute this charming stone goddess of love Venus. About Emerald say that it brings happiness only clean person, even if illiterate, so it can crack, unable to overcome the evil inclination to master. He gives courage to the soldiers, and the winners - mercy.
Jade - a mineral green. Jadeite is formed in metamorphic rocks under high pressure and relatively low temperature. In a fresh fracture luster dull, on the polished surface - bold, sometimes with a pearly sheen. Used as ornamental stone.
Pearls - the only jewelry materials formed in the body of mollusks, and he's probably one of the oldest stones used as jewelry, because it does not need additional treatment.
The pearl is formed inside a clam shell as a result of getting back the foreign body (sand, etc.). Further, it is deposited around the pearl, a thin film of concentric layers. Nacre is an organic unit of calcium carbonate. Thus, pearls and a member of the mineral, and of organic matter.
Usually pearls are white, sometimes pink or creamy; also found yellow, green, black and even blue pearls. Blue pearls are very rare, are of high value and attractive because of the rare, blue, lead-gray color.
Quartz - the most common mineral in nature, the earth's crust, silicon dioxide, is found in deposits in the form of a solid mass (quartz veins), in the form of fine-grained dense quartzite, as well as a well-formed columnar, prismatic crystals of large sizes. The color of quartz is very diverse.
Coral is the skeletal material of corals colonies ("bioherm"). Large accumulations of corals form coral reefs and coral islands. In nature, there are more than 2500 species of corals, which are distinguished in a palette of 350 colors. Corals are used as raw material for lime, some - for the manufacture of jewelry. In the latter case, a particularly prized black (akkabar), white pearl and silver "angel skin" and the most popular red and pink corals noble.
Corundum - a mineral that has some variety: ruby, sapphire and others. Strong metallic gloss to matte.
Lapis (lapis lazuli) - opaque minerals from blue to bluish-gray or greenish-gray color, consider the best stones lush blue or blue-purple, and rich blue. Name of the stone, "lapis lazuli" appeared only in the early Middle Ages, denoting it as "blue stone". The word "blue" comes from the Arabic "Azul", used to refer to the sky, or wider, something blue at all. The modern name "lapis lazuli" appeared in the XVIII century. "Lapis lazuli" called only dense and uniformly colored dark-blue variety of lapis lazuli. In ancient times, lapis lazuli was considered a stone of sincerity, a symbol of abilities, talents, success and divine arrangement. In Europe, lapis symbolizes prosperity, luck and success in India, devoted love and prosperity.
Malachite - one of the most beautiful and precious gemstones. The chemical composition of malachite is copper carbonate. Copper compounds cause the green color of the mineral. Under natural conditions, malachite is formed in the oxidation zone of copper, in places where copper ore deposits are combined with sedimentary carbonate rocks such as limestone, dolomite, and others. Despite the fairly widespread, is rarely seen malachite in a form suitable for use in jewelry.
Dense difference with good color and beautiful patterns are valued fairly expensive and are used for making vases, inlaid (facing tables, boxes) and other items. Columns in St. Isaac's Cathedral in St. Petersburg faced with thin slices of malachite. Most malachite vase is decorated with antique work center hall of the Mineralogical Museum. Fersman.
Jade - a mineral, a variety of actinolite, mainly composed of matted fibers of amphiboles. A remarkable feature of this breed: Extremely high viscosity - fragments of jade is very difficult to split into pieces. The strength of jade is commensurate with good grades of steel. Jade was used in the Bronze Age as a rock to make a very strong weapons and tools, and later - as objects and jewelry.
Color Breed varied - from almost white through all shades of green (yellowish, grass, emerald green, swamp) to almost black. Still occurs and red jade, but he is very valuable and very rare. Jade is often used as an ornamental stone.
Obsidian - volcanic glass uniform, passing through the rapid cooling of molten rock. Does not enter the water, well polished, has a characteristic conchoidal fracture, belongs to the most recent rocks. It is found in the Aeolian Islands, Iceland, Transcarpathia, Siberia, Central Asia, the Baikal region, Primorye, the Caucasus, Kamchatka, Kuril Islands. Obsidian played a big role in the history of mankind: it produced tools, weapons and jewelry.
Onyx - a term of ancient origin and broad meaning, used to refer to the parallel-banded varieties of different minerals ornamental quality, mainly of calcite (marble), chalcedony (carnelian) and cryptocrystalline quartz. Color - brown with white and black patterns, red-brown, brownish-yellow, honey, white, yellow, pink seams. For onyx especially characteristic of plane-parallel layers of different colors.
Agate and onyx sardonyx ("sardonyx", "SARD") has been used by people since prehistoric times for the manufacture of small carved art products (glyptics), as well as carved cylinder seals. Calcite (marble, etc.) types of onyx were used, and are now widely used in larger products: it's all sorts of small and medium plastic, onyx vases, jewelry boxes, candle holders, table tops, etc. It is also used in mosaics and wall. A relatively inexpensive semi-precious stone. The onyx is often cut out a variety of jewelry, the most rare and high-quality varieties of sardonyx - cameos, in which the higher part of the dark image contrasts with the bright background.
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